Thursday, August 27, 2020

The Effect Of Intercultural Communication Cultural Studies Essay

The Effect Of Intercultural Communication Cultural Studies Essay As the world is turning into a worldwide town, Intercultural correspondence or cross-culture correspondence is getting important for a fruitful multicultural society, for example, Australia. For example nature of the connection between proficient correspondence and different types of hierarchical correspondence; the connection between proficient correspondence and authoritative results, for example, workers work satisfaction;â andâ the consistency of these correspondence connections across societies. In a contemporary world intercultural correspondence is utilized to share thoughts, sees, mechanical developments, assets locally and around the world. The exposition analyzes five inquiries concerningâ the hugeness of Australia intercultural correspondence in perspective of the world, intercultural correspondence reason for internet based life, for example, Facebook, intercultural correspondence impacts on correspondence capability, results on social, political and culture esteems by intercultural correspondence lastly impact of different sort of correspondence like verbal, non-verbal, composed and visual on intercultural correspondence. Presentation Intercultural correspondence is characterized the wide scope of issues in imparting distinctive strict, social, ethnic, and instructive foundations. It is likewise interchangeable with cross culture which implies how unique social foundation conveys is comparable and how endeavors they put in imparting across various societies. These days the world is on a way of turning into a worldwide town. Henceforth, Intercultural correspondence in Australia is assuming an indispensable job in sharing advances, philosophies, contemplations and so forth. In this subject we will talk about the five key parts of intercultural correspondence which are worldwide view, web based life, for example, Facebook, correspondence capability, social, political and social qualities and different kind of correspondence like verbal, non-verbal, composed and visual. Area With the improvement of globalization on the planet it is turning out to be worldwide town. Intercultural correspondence has had a major impact in universal highest point by sharing perspectives, business and monetary exercises, social, political and advances developments, assets locally and internationally. Be that as it may, with national social orders turning out to be increasingly differing and universal contacts getting normal, correspondence scientists can no longer expect a social or a uni-social position. Individuals are all the more often engaged with circumstances where intercultural correspondence is required, and when intercultural correspondence is disregarded, its hard to perceive. In this article we will concentrate on some innovative points of view and conversations on a few parts of intercultural correspondence. There are five segments of intercultural correspondence should be featured. Right off the bat, significance of Intercultural Communication in the worldwide p erspective on the world are (a) The circumstance of correspondence itself, for example the socially conventionalized jobs embraced by members, their normal standards of collaborations and understanding, the manner in which they develop a mutual feeling of the real world, (b) The generalizations they engage of one another, as people and as individuals from a social gathering, (c) Their non-verbal and para-verbal conduct is improved locally and all inclusive through intercultural correspondence, (d) The manner in which they spare their own and every others face, (e) The manner in which they structure their talk to meet their open objectives, (f) The mentalities, qualities and convictions (called likewise talks) they share with the social gathering they have a place with which may likewise urge them to improve their ethic as individual or society or culture, (g) The manner in which their language mirrors these more profound talks, (h) They route individuals from various gatherings ackn owledge different discourse acts (like creation praises solicitations or expressions of remorse). In Australia intercultural correspondence center significance of understanding different societies is on the grounds that the word where we are is worldwide town and we are interfacing diverse culture individuals them face to face or through innovation. Another explanation would be that Australia is the most multicultural society on the planet. Be that as it may, a considerable lot of us are uninformed of our own one of a kind social foundation when we impart ourselves, yet when others defy specific guidelines, disillusion us or even annoy us then we know about them. We accept that intercultural correspondence would move corporate culture, instructive staff, human rights officials, work value supervisors, government strategy producers and lawmakers to create and keep up worldwide association. It is fundamental that every person and gathering advances intercultural correspondence occasio ns and experiences, simply after they have attempted a basic self-impression of their own generalizations and biases. Second to examine the job of online networking, for example, Facebook in Intercultural Communication, with its unmistakable highlights web based life made human culture to an exceptionally interconnected and complex level, and yet, it challenges the very presence of human Communication in the conventional sense. Web based life not just impacts the structure and substance of data/messages, however it likewise influences how individuals see each other during the time spent human correspondence, particularly for those from various social or ethnic gatherings. Facebook have empowered individuals from each side of the world to speak to themselves with a certain goal in mind and remain associated in the internet. Clearly the adaptability of data introduced and partook in the online networking will straightforwardly influence, either emphatically or adversely, the advancement of intercultural connections in the virtual network through the production of a system of individual association. In structive capability of informal community in intercultural correspondence, the utilization of Facebook as a social device to help the social parts of the progress from school to college (Madge et al., 2009), the challenges and advantages of online life for college understudies (Thelwall, 2008) and the character work understudies do on Facebook as they arrange the desires for companions, guides and the college as an establishment (Selwyn, 2009). Content examination uncovered that Facebook for the most part utilized for two purposes. Right off the bat, for human contact (like talking and chitchat) and second design is to look for advices, guide and assemble data from the down to earth encounters of others from gatherings or site. For the most part experts would concur that informal organization, for example, Facebook has empowered us to discuss effectively with our expert associates, both locally and abroad. In addition, these informal communities comfort have altered in our business practice. From one perspective, characteristically, the new culture rose up out of internet based life since its making a coherence hole among customs and advancements inside a culture. Before the web based life emerges, as indicated by Bagdasaryan (2011), conventions and advancements in the public eye existed together energetically, yet the impact of the internet based life brought about the powerlessness of customary qualities to stay up with the new social qualities delivered by associating with various culture through web-based social networking. This social hole has caused trouble in comprehension or correspondence among ages and among individuals in a similar culture. Third perspective to examine the effect of Intercultural correspondence on the correspondence ability, there is no denying that the different societies of the world are unquestionably more open than any other time in recent memory, and that the people groups of these societies are coming into contact expanding step by step. These contacts at last created dependent on relational relationship. Regardless of whether it is the arrangement of an arms bargain, or the settlement of a business contract, class addresses, societies don't connect, individuals do. In this manner, Communication fitness is viewed as extensively as a feeling that conduct is proper and successful in a given setting. Typically, fitness is viewed as capacity or a lot of talented practices. Fitness can't inhere in the conduct or capacity itself. It should rather be seen as a social assessment of conduct. This social assessment is made out of the two essential measures of propriety and viability. Propriety implies that the esteemed standards, standards, and anticipations of the relationship are not abused altogether. Viability is the achievement of esteemed objectives or prizes comparative with expenses and choices. In figure 1 we can see the model of correspondence capability. Figure 1 Effect of intercultural correspondence on correspondence fitness can be isolated into three degrees of investigation (1) singular framework, (2) roundabout framework and (3) connection framework. The individual framework have those characteristics as a person that are capable in regulating social sense, for example, communicator certainty builds, adequacy convictions expands, approach airs increment, the relative cost/advantage proportion of a circumstance builds, communicator inspiration increments. Open information increments, open fitness expands, task-applicable procedural information builds, authority of information procurement techniques builds, character and job decent variety builds, information airs increment, communicator information increments. Communicator aptitudes increment, conversational altercentrism increments, conversational coordination increments, conversational self-restraint, adjustment and expressiveness increments. The long winded framework incorporates those highlights of on-screen character which show a skill impression over a particular piece of cofactor in explicit scene of cooperation. On-screen characters open status, inspiration, information, aptitudes increments, logical check of Actors execution builds, Actors regulating infringement of Coactors negative hopes expands, Coactors impression of Actors skill is a component of Actors satisfaction of Coactors expe

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Anishinaabe change maker Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Anishinaabe change creator - Term Paper Example Much has been obtained from her academic work just as joint composing that think about her initial life and individual commitments as a creator and as a visionary lawmaker. To bring or advance an adequate positive change is an entrusting achievement and commitments of Winona LaDuke can't go unrecognized. She was raised on when there was gigantic loss of land from her locale a period in history when Ojibwa were diminished to possess saves, which they just controlled about 10% of the land (Silverstone 91). The principle factor affecting the requirement for a change was the quick effects identified with land misfortune including joblessness and social issues, for example, neediness just as the charge from her dad who was a built up dissident on settlement rights and inborn issues (LaDuke 75). There was a critical need to restore the blurring measures inside the network and to guarantee that they didn't remain casualties of land misfortune at a specific time. Winona LaDuke commitment in cutting edge studies and legislative issues additionally affected her job in supporting for a change since this was the high time that she incorporated with individuals public activities and found out about their needs and existing network holes. For example, while undertaking her lords in network financial improvement LaDuke moved to White Earth where she was exceptionally associated with neighborhood exercises, which aggravated her charge to take part in nearby ancestral issues, and attempted to recoup lands for Anishinaabe by for all intents and purposes all methods conceivable (LaDuke 85). Her accomplishments are mostly inserted on the recognizable outcomes and being an indispensable cooperative person in founding associations which their focal job was battling for the prosperity of the underestimated or distraught. As an extremist LaDuke was an essential cooperative person in building up and supporting the Indigenous Women Network (1985), a middle for governmental policy regarding minorities in society and social advancement that pitched constrained cleansing and thusly enacted a change for the

Friday, August 21, 2020

Creating an Effective Physical Classroom Environment

Creating an Effective Physical Classroom Environment Setting up a classroom is a daunting challenge - make the most of it with these suggestions Too much stuff, too many students, not enough space - the challenges of setting up a classroom are many. Here are some useful suggestions on the physical aspects and considerations of setting up the perfect classroom environment. Looking for additional tips on setting (or resetting) your classroom? We have hundreds of them in our classroom management center. Updated on: July 17, 2001 Page 1 of 2 Creating an Effective Physical Classroom Environment Every teacher knows that a safe, clean, comfortable and attractive classroom can stimulate learning and help build a classroom community. But for many teachers, setting up the physical environment of their classrooms can be quite daunting, especially when faced with older buildings, crowded classrooms and insufficient storage space. You can make the most of your classroom environment by carefully considering your needs and the needs of your students. Survey Your Classroom: Looking at the Basics The first things to consider when organizing your classroom are cleanliness, light and temperature. Although you may not have complete control over some of these elements, try to make or suggest improvements as necessary. The Floor Plan: Assessing Your Needs Once you have checked the basic elements in your classroom, think about your floor plan. It should maximize classroom space and reflect your individual teaching style. Y our floor plan will also depend on the grade you are teaching. For the lower grades, your classroom setup may include many different learning areas, such as a reading area, an art center and a technology center. The placement of these areas will depend upon the layout of your classroom. However, when setting up these areas, you will want to keep the following points in mind: Room dividers should be low so that all areas are visible to you. Areas that invite group work should not be next to quiet areas where students read or study independently. Art or other messy areas are best located near a sink. You should always be able to make eye contact with all students. Many of these guidelines hold true for the middle and upper grades, too. However, older students often spend more time seated in one area. Take your teaching style and lesson plans into consideration as you consider the different types of seating arrangements you might employ.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Coolest And Most Diverse Art On Tumblr - 935 Words

Some of the coolest and most diverse art on Tumblr belongs to female illustrators and designers. Every artist has a unique twist to her pieces, and being able to find that diverse collection is just a hash tag away. A quick tag search will do all the work for you, in my case, â€Å"female illustrators† and â€Å"female artists† was the one I used the most. If you’re looking for some interesting and impressive illustrations and graphics to spark your imagination, these are my top 24 female artists on Tumblr: A â€Å"lover of character design and art,† YemaYema provides its followers with fun futuristic-looking-Lego-like characters. I think these two robot-looking cartoons are really cool – if robots were to take over the world in the future, I think I’d be okay with it if they looked like these ones. This illustrator and graphic designer combines pastels and strong primary colors to make her art â€Å"pop† off the screen. Lola’s blog contains a mixture of abstract pieces like these, and more concrete images, which shows her diverse styles. Beautiful nature oriented sketches, and well-drawn comics are what a follower will find on this blog. Being a nature lover myself, I really enjoyed looking at all her paintings of flowers, and natural sceneries. Dramatic sketches, coupled with original poetry, make this account an intense one to follow. Whether she uses dark charcoal or brighter colors, the level of intensity of her artwork never wavers. This blog creates a mystical world for its

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Authorial Vs. Figural Narrative Situations in Coetzee’s...

Boyhood is a story of initiation with autobiographical characteristics when it comes to the content of the text. However, unlike the conventional narratological pattern of most autobiographies (first person, past tense), the narrator in Boyhood is an omniscient third person one, speaking in the present tense. The use of pronouns: â€Å"he,† â€Å"his mother,† â€Å"his father,† and â€Å"his brother,† rather than their names, enforces a sparse, universal feel, yet at the same time, Coetzee the individual, is evident and distinct. The fictional memoir is a combination of both authorial and figural narrative situations: the heterodiegetic narratological structure provides distance, a remove from the subject, but through psycho-narration we, as the implied†¦show more content†¦Coetzee purposefully creates this duality in the narratological structure in order to clearly illustrate his childhood self-portrait. The third person narration and the specifi c usage of â€Å"he† in place of â€Å"I† increases objectivity, but does not sound masked or artificial like one may think, because Coetzee, as the author, knows his projected self is transforming, protean, and abstract, and he wants the reader to acknowledge this mutable pattern. He intends for this ambiguity in the voice to reflect the ambiguity of his young character. The following line contains both the removed â€Å"he,† as well as internal focalization: â€Å"He is proud of how little he drinks. It will stand him in good stead, he hopes, if he is ever lost in the veld. He wants to be a creature of the desert, this desert, like a lizard† (83). Young Coetzee is the central character; the others only exist within the past story he is relaying. Thus, the immanent voice we receive from the protagonist’s thoughts and feelings is dominant over the distancing the third person narration creates. Overall, the authorial narrative situation creates a ga p between Coetzee’s younger self as a character and his modern self as the author and objective viewer (with the implied reader), yet the figural narrative structure clearly illustrates his perceived self and personality while growing up, by accessing his feelings and thoughts. He shares his life experiences with the reader, that helped shape the man he

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Personal Experience My Childhood Experience - 1201 Words

I have had numerous childhood encounters that have helped shape me into the individual that I am today. I have additionally had a ton of learning encounters over the span of my school year, a lot of them, I would state was more all through my high school years. A lot of my learning experiences were when I first came to America. Coming to a new country and trying to adapt to its ways can be very difficult. It is hard to just talk about one event because there is a lot, but I’ll just tell a few stories. My second story might not be from my childhood, but it was still something that helped me grow and helped me become the person I am today. The time when I was bullied at school by my peers and teachers especially in high school. It is hard†¦show more content†¦So of course, when I went to my teacher and I asked her to use the restroom, I said, â€Å"can I go to the WC.† After she had said that I was humiliated to even go back to my seat and sit down. I remember going home to my mom and when she opened the door and started conversing with me in Arabic, I got so irritated and told her the same thing that my teacher told me, â€Å"we are in America, stop talking in this stupid language.† I recall not wanting to talk to my parents unless they talk to me in English. I wanted to forget about the language and the country. I wanted to forget about who I was and where I came from and begin another life and erase everything from before. To the point, I was in the third grade when my teacher wanted to do a mini international day and she advised every one of us to come and wear our traditional cloth and bring food. I was so confused on why everyone was so eager to show off their culture. So, I went home, made my mom make food for me and I dressed up in anything that I could find, I couldn’t care less to make my poster board about Egypt look nice and neat As I was standing in my corner waiting for the teacher and some students to come to my stand, I was thinking to myself when will this day be over, but when they showed up and they started asking a lot of questions about the pyramids and the food, they all appeared toShow MoreRelatedMy Reflection Of Education In Education1210 Words   |  5 PagesAs I sit here and reflect on my time here at Rive r Valley since I began my Associates degree, I am struck by how far I’ve progress personally and professionally. I have learned that being a good educator does not only imply to the children you are teaching and interacting with, it also includes being willing to improve oneself, Gaining self-confidence and developing my teaching abilities has been a process. I have learned to regally evaluate my approaches and learning, understand more about theRead MoreWhy I Chose The Word Childhood1395 Words   |  6 PagesWhen I looked over the words for the Personal Definitions Essay, I was at a stand still. All of the words that were presented seemed great, but still a cliche. For instance, the easiest word on there has to be Love. How many people on the street right now could answer â€Å"What does love mean to you?† and it is a universal definition of one loving another in a caring and loving way. How many people would give examples of their significant others or their fam ilies to show assurance of this definitionRead MoreThe Human Emotions and Experiences expressed in â€Å"The Whipping† and â€Å"My Papa’s Waltz†780 Words   |  4 PagesEmotions and Experiences expressed in â€Å"The Whipping† and â€Å"My Papa’s Waltz† â€Å"The Whipping† and â€Å"My Papa’s Waltz† both deal with critical and serious issues that lie within the human mind. 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All individuals must abandon their personal biases in order to assimilate and preserve cultural diversity in the various nationalities that are comprised of a global melting pot. One ideologies I practice is to uphold a human dignity and understand that each individual is unique. It is impossible a social worker effectively serve clients without abandoning any personal bias against any populations. All individuals should be encouraged and empoweredRead MoreThe Social Of Social Justice1200 Words   |  5 Pagessociety. Social workers can serve in a community, individually, and globally that broadens the span of the social justice. In the social justice, we are objective and encourage the restructuring a system that is in desperate need of a renovation. In my opinion, social justice can be most effective through team collaboration and dedication of all parties involved in the system. Every social worker understands the importance of preserving various populations’ heritage and cultural diversity.Read MoreFinding The Teachers Perception About The Giftedness Early Childhood1045 Words   |  5 PagesIII. Methods 7 My goal is to discover the teachers’ perception about the giftedness in early childhood. I will conduct a qualitative study to comprehend how preservice early childhood education teachers identify giftedness in early years and how they construct their perceptions during their student teaching experience. Applying qualitative research will enable me to grasp array of perspectives and multiple interpretations of the individuals regarding the issue I am investigating (Glesne, 1999)Read MoreThe Development And Development With One s Lifespan857 Words   |  4 Pages(1971) eight stage developmental theory, humans continue to develop throughout their entire lifespan from birth until death. Each stage representing a key aspect in the development of one’s identity, and personality, and overall well-being. Our personal identity gives each of us an integrated and cohesive sense of self that endures and continues to grow as we age (Santrock 2009). These elements are influence d by factors such as socioeconomic status, location, culture, spiritual beliefs, and meetingRead MoreBattles in the Desert Essay634 Words   |  3 Pagesyoung man named Carlos encounter social and political changes. Carlos narrates his own experiences during his childhood when social and political problems are happening. The time period is during the regime of the government of Miguel Aleman. Carlos’ experiences demonstrate the changes of his own personal life, and the impact of the American culture on Mexico. I believe Carlos is reflecting his personal childhood lived at Mà ©xico, and also the unwilling changes of his personality. How Carlos enjoys

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Common Problems Faced by Organizations †

Question: Discuss about the Common Problems Faced by Organizations. Annswer: Introduction Globalization has resulted in accumulating pool of candidates from different background and diversified culture to work under the same umbrella. Talent management and employee retention has become the greatest challenges in this competitive environment as according to Festing and Schafer (2014), expectation of associates is not limited to fringe benefits. However, there has been some common problems such as managing current assets, poor operational cash flow and poor debt management due to which organizations are not able to invest more on human resource development. This essay will primarily focus on the common current problems that organization is facing, which impacts on its performance and profitability. Later, strategic roles that the HR can play in developing human resource base will be discussed. This will comprise of recruitment and selection complexities, employee training and development, performance management system and succession planning. Common Problems faced by Organizations, their impacts and possible recommendations According to Collings (2014), recruitment and selection is considered as one of the toughest challenges faced by the organizations as finding candidates who are having the right blend of personality, attitude, attire, behavior and talent are quite hard to filter. It has been found that getting candidates of right qualification is not an issue at present, however diffusion of correct personality traits that would be suitable for organizational culture is extremely hard. Moreover, Cappelli and Keller (2014) pointed out that market competition has been the major cause of selecting the most suitable candidates as their expectation is beyond salary and monetary benefits, which organizations might not be able to bear. While considering the viewpoint of Stone and Deadrick (2015), it can be said that training and development is required in continuous basis for employees when working in this competitive environment. Due to the change in operational procedure to meet customer demand, organizations change their service delivery pattern but for that adequate training is often not provided to associates. The common reasons for the organization are lack of adequate fund and capital for continuous training and development and unavailability of required number of trainers. Such reasons are the common cause for poor performance and profitability of organizations. Aruna and Anitha (2015) pointed out that employee retention is the toughest challenge for businesses in the 21st Century as HR needs to create the right balance between remuneration, incentives and company culture. Remuneration fulfils the basic requirement of employees, whereas incentives create a sense of motivation due to lucrative additional benefits that they might get while outperforming. However, Nolan and Garavan (2016) highlighted that companies fail to create the right balance between remuneration and incentives as compared to their competitors. Eventually, employees of the organization who are getting better remuneration and other fringe benefits are switching their existing employer. This has resulted in poor talent management as employers of the organization are failing to retain experienced candidates. The above-mentioned reasons are the most common challenges faced by the organization, however some other problems are managing workplace diversity, lack of performance management system and proper career planning. OReilly et al. (2014) pointed out organization culture creates the comfortable place for employees to perform with satisfaction and mutual cooperation. However, often the employers are found to disrespect common objectives and organizational values, due to which prevailing culture gets affected. Donnelly (2015) argued that managing workforce diversity is the most impactful challenge as associates with different behavior, attitude, class and background can never be expected to be driven towards common organizational objectives. Moreover, Men (2014) opined that lack of satisfaction among employees due to poor incentives, bonus and allowances is one of the main reasons for poor productivity. Finally, Spurk et al. (2015) argued that organizations fail to develop career planning for employees, which would otherwise help in long-term employee retention. Furthermore, poor succession planning is the challenge as newly recruited employees from different background find it hard to accustom with organization culture. Strategic roles that HR needs to play must start right from the starting of employee recruitment. Considering the common challenges that are discussed earlier, it has been evident that HR needs to focus on strategic role right from the time of recruitment and selection. In order to reduce the complexities considering workforce diversity at the time of recruitment and selection, Burt (2015) pointed out that HR considers talent to be the prime theme for selection. This is because for selecting diversified workforce behavioral and psychological parameters will be variable from candidate to candidate, whereas qualification and talent will be constant. On the other hand, Nabi et al. (2015) brought forward different recruitment process such as ways through which biasness can be reduced irrespective of various diversity. In such process, HR asks for past achievements and experiences, which helps in creating idea of the candidates skills. Moreover, HR focus on the specific credential such as degree, diploma or degree. Finally, through the type of discussion with candidates the HR is able to get idea of communication skill, decision making ability and confidence among candidates through which selection process is followed. Therefore, it can be said that in order to reduce the recruitment challenges HR try to focus on talent and skill among candidates specifically and candidate background is given the least concern. Strategic importance of careful selection indicates right talent management and long-term retention. Collings (2014) pointed that 51.22% of newly recruited employees are found to resign within first 3 months of employment. Therefore, great amount of capital is wasted for both hiring process and training and development course. Therefore, careful selection is extremely important for employee retention. With the series of selection screening process, the best suitable candidates are recruited, for which considerable amount of capital is consumed. Strategic importance is to recruit the best suitable candidate who does match with organizational culture and required talent for business sustainability. Stone and Deadrick (2015) opined that organizational workforce is the primary key for delivering products and services and getting the optimum productivity depends on how well the employees perform. Therefore, careful selection indicates recruiting such employees who are well experienced and have the urge to deliver according to target. Moreover, Burt (2015) pointed out that candidates must be recruited on the basis of psychological and behavioral attributes that guide him towards positive productivity. Careful selection ensures selecting candidates through psychological tests, aptitude tests and emotional tests, which help in getting ideas of decision making ability, working under stress and judgements of candidates. Importance of Training and Development indicates employee growth and progress with course of time. While considering the viewpoint of Sung and Choi (2014), it can be said that training and development is one of the most effective ways through which employees can be retained for longer period because they are able to gather knowledge and skills as per organizational procedures, which eventually helps them perform better. Ultimately, employees become satisfied and gain confidence to outperform in future. On the other hand, Dhar (2015) highlighted that through training sessions employees are groomed for career planning, which makes them understand the importance and significance for serving longer term. According to Barker, Lencucha and Anderson (2016), considering Kolbs learning cycle, a learner can get the best knowledge of either a new situation or an existing experience through the four stages, which are concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The need for such learning cycle is that the learner is given knowledge of how to handle a situation prior to which he had negligible idea (refer to appendix 1). After that the learner is given time to self-access whether there has been any gap between new experience and understanding. Finally, the learner is able to reduce the gap through training process and apply new experience in job role. On the other hand, Rumson (2017) argued that Honey and Mumford Learning Styles determined some specific categories of learners over Kolbs learning cycle, which are Activist, Pragmatist, Reflector and Theorist (refer to appendix 1). Based on the type of specific learner category the employees are given learning sessions. This helps in developing the individual learner in more directive and actualized manner. Therefore, it can be said that through the learning theories a trainee is able to gather concrete knowledge and experience in stepwise manner that helps in better execution of performance. One of the best approaches for training and development is coaching as Huang and Hsieh (2015) pointed out that the assigned supervisor directly communicates with the trainees through which instructions, knowledge and skills are spontaneously shared. On the other hand, Barrett et al. (2015) pointed out that providing lectures and tutorials help in training group of candidates within short time and in less budget. Furthermore, Dhar (2015) highlighted that practical based training approaches such as role plaining and management games create enthusiasm among candidates through which they learn faster. Therefore, the different approaches to training and development can be listed as coaching, tutorials, on-job-training, role playing, technology-based training and group discussion. Effective Performance Management System ensures both employee satisfaction and retention. After analyzing the issues and strategic roles that HR plays in common, it required to understand and recommend the requirement of effective performance management system. Even though HR tries to filter the best talent for a business, however managing diversity, reducing attrition and employee motivation are the three biggest challenges that they are facing (Tatoglu, Glaister and Demirbag 2016). For making the performance management system to be effective, Buckingham and Goodall (2015) pointed out that the process must be made systematic, which will comprise of planning work and setting expectations among employees and continuously monitor associates performance so that the best can be recognized. Such strategies will be helpful because employees will feel that managers respect their decision and make them as the part of decision making. On the other hand, by recognizing the best performer, it w ill create a sense of competition driven by motivation among employees. On the other hand, Ishizaka and Pereira (2016) pointed out that developing performance-oriented capacity, periodical performance rating and reward and recognition and the best ways that strategically establish effective performance system. Considering the viewpoints of authors, it can be said that an organization need to assign roles to the authorities who directly supervise the employees or workers. The team leader can create a performance report where the customer satisfaction percentage, review ratings and direct appreciations from different internal levels are recorded. It will be the best if an organization has a dedicated operational portal that will record each employee performance, productivity, rating, customer satisfaction (CSAT), appreciation and feedback. In this way, the management will be able to record individual employees historical performance and award the best associate. Moreover, since such dedicated portal will be completely based on real-time data feed directly from clients or from top level managers, hence the possibility of biasness from management side can also be reduced. In this way employees can be recognized and the top performer can be awarded. Career Planning and Succession Planning are the two ways through which employees can be valued for long term. While considering the viewpoint of Hall-Ellis (2015), it can be said that internal recruitment is one such procedure that not only creates motivation among employees in terms of promotion but also reduces the cost of recruitment and selection. On the other hand, Ok and Vandenberghe (2016) pointed out that internal recruitment creates a sense of biasness among potential candidates as not all get the opportunity to be promoted. However, whatever may be the process of promotion, career planning of an individual helps oneself to gather more potential for different roles and responsibilities. Through career planning programs, an employee understands the scope of exposure that he might be getting in future. An employee is groomed to perform in different roles, which makes him fit for getting assigned in higher designation within the organization. Therefore, at the time of internal job posting, the most suitable employees are given the opportunity to get succeeded in higher level. HR needs to assign career planning programs for suitable candidates based on their performance and potentiality. Considering succession planning, HR needs to assign short-term periodic responsibilities to existing tenured employees through which they can be justified for higher job roles. All such activities will help an organization to reduce attrition and create motivation among employees. Conclusion The critical discussion gave various views from different scholars. It has been identified that at present the HR faces issues related to right employee recruitment, talent management due to poor training and development, managing workforce diversity and poor performance management system. Since there is lack of talent management, the overall productivity is found to have a huge gap from its optimum output. On the other hand, since training and development activities are not adequate, hence retaining newly recruited employees has become quite challenging. Finally, due to lack of strategy for career planning, experienced employees are trying to switch their existing employer. It has been recommended that the strategic role of HR must be improvised so that the performance management system becomes more effective. HR needs to observe, identify and recognize potentiality among best candidates through dedicated portal where individual employee performance-oriented parameters will be highl ighted. 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